A11y Problematic Issues

University Website

"University Website" from xkcd.com: A webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language.

How Information-Seeking Behavior Has Changed in 22 Years (1997-2020)

"When you consider all of the things that can affect your ability to access and use the web, which item causes the greatest amount of frustration or difficulty for you?" WebAIM Screen Reader User Survey #7
  • The presence of inaccessible Flash content
  • CAPTCHA - images presenting text used to verify that you are a human user
  • Links or buttons that do not make sense
  • Images with missing or improper descriptions (alt text)
  • Screens or parts of screens that change unexpectedly
  • Complex or difficult forms
  • Lack of keyboard accessibility
  • Missing or improper headings
  • Too many links or navigation items
  • Complex data tables
  • Inaccessible or missing search functionality
  • Lack of "skip to main content" or "skip navigation" links

Page Structure Concepts  Web Accessibility Tutorials

  • Page Sections:
    • Identify and mark section on pages using HTML5 and WAI-ARIA roles to make sure that the purpose of each individual section is conveyed to users.
  • Headings:
    • Convey the page’s structure and sections of content by adding headings of different levels.
  • Content Structure:
    • Mark up content so it can be easily interpreted and adapted to user’s needs.
  • Styling:
    • Apply a distinct hierarchy to the visual page’s design, so users are able to easily determine what each section of the page does.
  • In-page Navigation:
    • Provide navigation aids to help users to get around the page and discover the various sections of the page. Consider adding a “table of content” for longer pieces of content
  • A11Y Style Guide  About

Dark Patterns, Deceptive Design Patterns and Accessibility

Way finding



Age Related

  • Designing for Kids: Cognitive Considerations
  • Design for the Elderly
  • Tables


    Flicker Rate


    Textual CAPTCHA Examples

    Flower, resting, lawyer, campsite: the word starting with "c" is?
    The word in capitals from relieves, luxuriate or CAMPAIGN is?
    How many colors in the list purple, penguin, blue, white and red?
    What is 1 + six?
    What number is 2nd in the series 35, 19 and thirty two?
    Which of sock, library, cake or red is a colour?
    Enter the number thirteen thousand three hundred and sixty eight in digits:


    Keyboard Navigation

    PDF and Word Speech Reader Issues from WebAIM Screen Reader User Survey #8

    • How likely is it that PDF documents will pose significant accessibility issues to you?
    • How likely is it that Microsoft Word documents will pose significant accessibility issues to you?