"The power of the Web is in its universality.
Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect."

Tim Berners-Lee
W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web

Created in HTML Slidy: Slide Shows in XHTML



Way back when...

Do you remember?

What is Disability?

Stephen Hawking suffers from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Hawking has near complete paralysis but retains enough muscle control to allow him to press a button with his right hand. A computer screen displays a series of icons that allow control of his wheelchair, doors and appliances in his house. He can select items on the screen by pressing the button when a moving cursor passes over the correct area of the screen.

It is a waste of time to be angry about my disability.
One has to get on with life and I haven’t done badly.
People won’t have time for you if you are always angry or complaining.

Steven Hawking

The World Health Organization defines disability as a mismatch in interaction between the features of a person’s body and the features of the environment in which they live.

Disabilities can range from situational disabilities, like limited mobility while holding a baby or bright sunlight on a phone, to other physical, auditory, visual, or age-related impairments.

What is Web Accessibility?


Timeline of Web Accessibility Standards

The challenges of Web accessibility: The technical and social aspects of a truly universal Web

The challenges of Web accessibility: The technical and social aspects of a truly universal Web
 First Monday, Volume 20, Number 9 - 7 September 2015

In little more than two decades the Web has evolved into an essential service for many of us in our daily lives, moving beyond the sum of its parts as an information, communication and collaborative resource. This is particularly true for people with disabilities for whom the Web offers the promise of independent participation. However, for people with disabilities to enjoy the benefits that the Web can provide, two key access issues need to be addressed:

This paper concludes with the view that disability awareness, more than technology and policy, is perhaps the primary obstacle to a more universally accessible Web.

It may be awareness of Web accessibility, brought about through legal and policy mechanisms, will have a greater impact on the uptake of accessible design than will the ongoing improvement of accessible technologies.

For many people without a disability, explaining the concept of accessibility and its importance to all users, not just those with specialised needs, can be extremely challenging.

Alexa 100 Accessibility Updates (errors from 2017 compared to those identified in 2011)

the Four Principles of Accessibility: "POUR"

Why be concerned with Web Accessibility?


Key Benefits of Web Accessibility:

Accessibility as a Similar Concept to Usability...

Lady in kayack on the water in the forground smiling with her wheelchair on beach behind her in background.
Is she Handicaped?

Several authors discuss accessibility as a similar concept to usability.

However authors are increasingly interested in the intersection of accessibility and usability.

How many people are we talking about?

Of the 57 million people with disabilities in the United States, according to a Census Bureau report:

How common is photosensitive epilepsy?
Around one in 131 people have epilepsy and of these people, up to 5% have photosensitive epilepsy. This is when seizures are triggered by certain frequencies of flashing lights or contrasting light and dark patterns such as stripes or checks.


Great Class, Right?

Cat asking the question: Great Class?

What needs do we consider?

Assistive Technologies and Adaptive Strategies

How People with Disabilities Use the Web


Approaches to Web Accessibility


The Planning, Evaluation, Repair and Maintenance Process

D      illustration of how the guidelines relate, described at www.w3.org/WAI/intro/components-desc#guide

Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0

Easy Accessibility Tips Anyone Can Use

  1. Add Alternative Text to Your Logo
  2. Add Basic Landmarks   ARIA landmarks
  3. Enhance Focus Indicators
  4. Identify Required Form Fields
  5. Make Your Page Title an <h1>
  6. Identify Table Headers
  7. Identify Table Captions
  8. Avoid "click here"
  9. Remove tabindex
  10. Check Your Page in WAVE

Designing for Learning Difficulties & Web Accessibility


Web accessibility myths

Assistive Technology being used by everyone

Assistive Technology being used by everyone isn't something new.

WOW!, A11Y!

Two cats with the heading: WOW!, A11Y!;

END -STOP HALT -30- </html> QRT "that's all folks"

David and NAFTA, his cat.
David J. Hark

Shepherdstown, WV 25443-0201

Last updated: 19 March 2017
© David J. Hark 2017